A Guide To Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus

Glucose is a simple sugar, and an essential nutrient that gives energy for daily functioning of body cells. Diabetes Mellitusis a group of metabolic diseases resulting from defects in insulin action, secretion, or both. It is also known as diabetes or sweet urine. A hormone produced by pancreas, insulin, controls the glucose level in blood. For people suffering from diabetes mellitus, there is insufficient production of insulin, resulting in hyperglycemia.

Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus

Acute complications of diabetes mellitus occur suddenly, and may be the first indications of diabetes for a person who is unaware that he or she is diabetic. The complications related to diabetes may also occur if the insulin therapy is withdrawn suddenly. Diabetic coma and diabetic ketoacidosis are the two most common complications of diabetes mellitus.

Diabetic coma is an acute complication of diabetes mellitus in which osmotic diuresis causes the severe dehydration. It is more common in elderly patients who have pneumonia or stroke, and amount of water that is lost through urine is not adequately replaced. The patient suffers excessive urination due to high blood sugar level, but is not able to drink sufficient water to replenish the loss.

There are some symptoms like vomiting, nausea, ailment in stomach and fast breathing which can be noticed in diabetic ketoacidosis. In some patients, these symptoms appear too late, thus preventing early medical intervention. This causes severe water loss and dehydration.

Diabetic nephropathy is also a complication of diabetes mellitus, and is the most common cause of disability and death in diabetes. It starts with passage of some protein in the urine, but is not detected by urine routine examination.

Diabetic foot is a long-term complication of diabetes mellitus, and is characterized by non-healing wound on the feet. The wound can get infected, producing a foul-smelling discharge. This infects entire foot and leg.

When the amount of eaten food and taken insulin are improper in balance then it arises to Hypoglycemia, a short-term diabetes mellitus problem. High level of blood sugar makes it difficult for body to fight the infections. This can cause urinary tract infection as well.

Another complication of diabetes mellitus is higher risk of atherosclerosis, in which the arteries narrow down causing the damage to large blood vessels. Cataracts, other heart disorder and high blood pressure are some additional complications of diabetes mellitus.

First step towards diabetes mellitus treatment is to control the blood glucose levels. As diabetes also increases the risk of peripheral artery disease and heart disease, keeping a check on cholesterol and blood pressure is also an important part of this treatment. Dietary management, keeping stress and weight under control, maintaining physical activity and monitoring the oral medications are integral part of diabetes treatment.

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This post was written by admin on June 8, 2010

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